HGH – Human Growth Hormone Supplement
| L – Arginine |
Arginine, also known as l-arginine, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. L-arginine is an amino acid that helps the body build protein. Arginine is an important precursor of nitric oxide (NO) and thus plays a role in the dilation of blood vessels. As a supplement, L-arginine can be used orally and topically. Because L-arginine acts as a vasodilator, opening (dilating) blood vessels, many people take oral L-arginine to try to treat cardiovascular conditions and erectile dysfunction. Ideal for athletes and people leading an active lifestyle, L Arginine is essential for building strength and improved overall performance. It supports efficient blood flow, resulting in a significant boost in your energy level and shorter recovery time against fatigue, allowing you to develop pure, lean muscle. Ornithine Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle. Ornithine is abnormally accumulated in the body in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. The radical is ornithyl.
|l-Ornithine is one of the products of the action of the enzyme arginase on l-arginine, creating urea. Therefore, ornithine is a central part of the urea cycle, which allows for the disposal of excess nitrogen. l-Ornithine supplementation attenuated fatigue in subjects in a placebo-controlled study using a cycle ergometer. The results suggested that l-ornithine has an antifatigue effect in increasing the efficiency of energy consumption and promoting the excretion of ammonia. Ornithine is used for improving athletic performance, reducing glutamine poisoning in the treatment of a brain condition due to liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy), and for wound healing. Lysine Lysine is an amino acid (building block of protein). People use it to make medicine. Lysine is used for preventing and treating cold sores (caused by the virus called herpes simplex labialis). It is taken by mouth or applied directly to the skin for this use. Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO− form under biological conditions), and a side chain lysyl ((CH2)4NH2), classifying it as a basic, charged (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid. The human body cannot synthesize lysine, so it is essential in humans and must be obtained from the diet. Lysine plays several roles in humans, most importantly proteinogenesis, but also in the crosslinking of collagen polypeptides, uptake of essential mineral nutrients, and in the production of carnitine, which is key in fatty acid metabolism.|
Due to its importance in several biological processes, a lack of lysine can lead to several disease states including defective connective tissues, impaired fatty acid metabolism, anaemia, and systemic protein-energy deficiency. In contrast, an overabundance of lysine, caused by ineffective catabolism, can cause severe neurological issues.
Lysine can also contribute to protein stability as its ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding, salt bridges and covalent interactions to form a Schiff base.
Lysine has also been implicated to play a key role in other biological processes including; structural proteins of connective tissues, calcium homeostasis, and fatty acid metabolism.
Because herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins are richer in arginine and poorer in lysine than the cells they infect, lysine supplements have been tried as a treatment.
Lysine has also been shown to play a role in anaemia, as stated above, as lysine is suspected to have an effect on the uptake of iron and, subsequently, the concentration of ferritin in blood plasma.
Lysine production for animal feed is a major global industry, reaching in 2009 almost 700,000 tonnes for a market value of over €1.22 billion. Lysine is an important additive to animal feed because it is a limiting amino acid when optimizing the growth of certain animals such as pigs and chickens for the production of meat. Lysine supplementation allows for the use of lower-cost plant protein (maize, for instance, rather than soy) while maintaining high growth rates, and limiting the pollution from nitrogen excretion.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Its side chain is similar to that of glutamic acid, except the carboxylic acid group is replaced by an amide. It is classified as a charge-neutral, polar amino acid. It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of it, but in some instances of stress, the body’s demand for glutamine increases, and glutamine must be obtained from the diet. It is encoded by the codons CAA and CAG.
In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid.
The dietary sources of glutamine includes especially the protein-rich foods like beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, eggs, vegetables like beans, beets, cabbage, spinach, carrots, parsley, vegetable juices and also in wheat, papaya, Brussels sprouts, celery, kale and fermented foods like miso.
Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions:
Protein synthesis, as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids
Lipid synthesis, especially by cancer cells.
Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium
Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose
Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines
Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle
Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation
Precursor to the neurotransmitter glutamate
Glutamine is marketed as medical food and is prescribed when a medical professional believes a person in their care needs supplementary glutamine due to metabolic demands beyond what can be met by endogenous synthesis or diet.
Ceasing glutamine supplementation in people adapted to very high consumption may initiate a withdrawal effect, raising the risk of health problems such as infections or impaired integrity of the intestine.
Studies support the positive effects of the chronic oral administration of the supplement on the injury and inflammation induced by intense aerobic and exhaustive exercise.
Burns. Administering glutamine through a feeding tube or intravenously (by IV) seems to reduce infections, shorten hospital stays, and improve wound healing in people with burns.
Critical illness (trauma). There is some evidence that glutamine keeps bacteria from moving out of the intestine and infecting other parts of the body after major injuries. However, not all evidence is consistent. It is not clear if glutamine reduces the risk of death in critically ill people. Some studies suggest that it might reduce the risk of death, while others do not.
Treating weight loss and intestinal problems in people with HIV/AIDs disease. Taking glutamine by mouth seems to help HIV/AIDS patients absorb food better and gain weight. Doses of 40 grams per day seem to produce the best effect.
Soreness and swelling inside the mouth, caused by chemotherapy treatments. Some evidence suggests that glutamine reduces soreness and swelling inside the mouth caused by chemotherapy. However, glutamine does not seem to have this effect for all chemotherapy patients. It is not clear which patients are likely to benefit. Some researchers suspect that chemotherapy patients who do not have enough glutamine to start with are most likely to be helped.
Surgery. Giving glutamine intravenously (by IV) along with intravenous nutrition seems to improve immune function and reduce complications related to infections after major surgery. Also, giving glutamine intravenously (by IV) along with intravenous nutrition after a bone marrow transplant seems to reduce the risk of infection and improve recovery compared to intravenous nutrition alone. However, not all people who undergo major surgery or who receive bone marrow transplants seem to benefit from glutamine.
Colostrum is a milky fluid that comes from the breasts of humans, cows, and other mammals the first few days after giving birth, before true milk appears. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and proteins (antibodies) that fight disease-causing agents such as bacteria and viruses. Antibody levels in colostrums can be 100 times higher than levels in regular cow’s milk.
Some athletes use bovine colostrum to burn fat, build lean muscle, increase stamina and vitality, and improve athletic performance. Bovine colostrum is not on the banned drug list of the International Olympic Committee.
Bovine colostrum is also used for boosting the immune system, healing injuries, repairing nervous system damage, improving mood and sense of well being, slowing and reversing aging, and as an agent for killing bacteria and fungus.
Bovine colostrum is used in the rectum to treat inflammation of the colon (colitis).
Researchers have created a special type of bovine colostrum called “hyperimune bovine colostrum.” This special colostrum is produced by cows that have received vaccinations against specific disease-causing organisms. The vaccinations cause the cows to develop antibodies to fight those specific organisms. The antibodies pass into the colostrum. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum has been used in clinical trials for treating AIDS-related diarrhea, diarrhea associated with graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplant, and rotavirus diarrhea in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted hyperimmune bovine colostrum “orphan drug status.” Under the Orphan Drug Law, drug makers who invest in the development of treatments for rare conditions enjoy special market advantages; for example, permission to sell the drug without competition for 7 years. If these special incentives were not in place, pharmaceutical companies might not develop drugs for rare conditions because the potential market is so small.
Colostrum is collected from cows that have been vaccinated to produce antibodies that fight the bacteria that cause diarrheal disease. Research shows that taking bovine colostrum by mouth for 8-12 weeks can reduce of the number of episodes and symptoms of upper airway infections in people who exercise.
Infectious diarrhea. Taking bovine colostrum seems to prevent infectious diarrhea from developing in adults, as well as children with a history of infectious diarrhea. It also seems to treat infectious diarrhea that has already developed in children. But it doesn’t appear to speed recovery from infectious diarrhea in children who are also taking an antibiotic.
Diarrhea in people with HIV. Taking bovine colostrum helps reduce diarrhea in people with HIV. Most research has used hyperimmune bovine colostrum.
The flu (influenza). Taking a specific type of bovine colostrum (Ad Colostrum, Corcon srl) by mouth for 8 weeks helps prevent the flu, including in people that have already been vaccinated against the flu and in people with heart disease who have a higher risk of getting the flu.
Rotaviral diarrhea. Taking bovine colostrum seems to reduce diarrhea in children with diarrhea due to rotavirus. Most research has used hyperimmune bovine colostrum.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G; /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/) is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest amino acid, with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter – interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction.
Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl.
Glycine is an amino acid, a building block for protein. It is not considered an “essential amino acid” because the body can make it from other chemicals.
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem, and retina.
Most of the current research has been focused on its role in the central nervous system, where it may be able to improve sleep, enhance memory, and aid in the treatment of schizophrenia.
It is also believed to reduce brain damage following a stroke, treat an enlarged prostate, heal serious leg ulcers, and improve insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes or prediabetes.