Vitamins

Every day, your body produces skin, muscle, and bone. It churns out rich red blood that carries nutrients and oxygen throughout your body, and it sends nerve signals skipping along thousands of miles of brain and body pathways. Your body also formulates chemical messengers that shuttle from one organ to another, issuing the instructions that help sustain your life. 

Vitamins 

There are two types of vitamins and minerals, first, water-soluble vitamins: Because much of your body consists of water, many of the water-soluble vitamins circulate easily in your body. Your kidneys continuously regulate levels of water-soluble vitamins, shunting excesses out of the body in your urine.
Water-soluble vitamins include: Biotin (vitamin B7), Folic acid (folate, vitamin B9), Niacin (vitamin B3), Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5, Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Thiamin (vitamin B1), Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C
Although water-soluble vitamins have many tasks in the body, one of the most important is helping to free the energy found in the food you eat.


Second, fat-soluble vitamins: these vitamins are digested by the stomach acid and then travel to the small intestine, where it is digested further. Bile is needed for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. This substance, which is produced in the liver, flows into the small intestine, where it breaks down fats. Nutrients are then absorbed through the wall of the small intestine.Upon absorption, the fat-soluble vitamins enter the lymph vessels before making their way into the bloodstream. In most cases, fat-soluble vitamins must be coupled with a protein in order to travel through the body.
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Together this vitamin quartet helps keep your eyes, skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system in good repair.


Minerals

Major minerals travel through the body in various ways. Potassium, for example, is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream, where it circulates freely and is excreted by the kidneys, much like a water-soluble vitamin. Calcium is more like a fat-soluble vitamin because it requires a carrier for absorption and transport.
Major minerals include: Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Sulfur.
One of the key tasks of major minerals is to maintain the proper balance of water in the body.


Trace minerals
A thimble could easily contain the distillation of all the trace minerals normally found in your body. Yet their contributions are just as essential as those of major minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, which each account for more than a pound of your body weight.
Trace minerals include: Chromium, Copper, Fluoride, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium, Zinc.
Iron is best known for ferrying oxygen throughout the body.
Fluoride strengthens bones and wards off tooth decay.
Zinc helps blood clot, is essential for taste and smell, and bolsters the immune response.
Copper helps form several enzymes, one of which assists with iron metabolism and the creation of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood.